Reproductive health knowledge platform for youth

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Modern Methods

Hormonal methods

Contraceptive pills

Contraceptive pills are hormones that prevent ovulation, as they increase the viscosity of cervical mucus, making it difficult for sperm to penetrate the semen, and making the lining of the uterus less suitable for implantation of a fertilized egg.

There are two types of pills, and their effectiveness is up to 99% if used correctly:

  • Mini/monophasic-hormone pills (contain only the progestin hormone)
  • Combination /dual hormone pills (containing the progestin and estrogen hormone).


Tables No. 1 and 2 show some of the advantages and disadvantages of these pills.


Table No. (1) Combination /Dual Hormone Pills


Disadvantages / Side effects




  • They should not be taken during breastfeeding
  • Forgetting to take pills daily
  • Serious complications (increased susceptibility to blood clots and clots) which are uncommon
  • Common side effects such as headache, nausea, heaviness in the breasts, spotting between menstruation, slight weight gain (2-3 kg per year), and mood changes
  • They don’t protect against sexually transmitted diseases
  • Cannot be used by women who smoke excessively (15-20 cigarettes per day)
  • Not recommended for use by those over 35-40 years old
  • It is not recommended for use by women who have heart and valve diseases, high blood pressure, liver disease, current or previous infection with clots, diabetes with complications in blood vessels, and the presence of tumors affected by estrogen hormone.




They don’t interfere with the sexual process.


You do not need any action before sexual intercourse

- Once you stop using it, your fertility will return to normal.

They have other health benefits:

  • They regulate the menstrual cycle
  • They reduce the menstrual cycle period, the amount of menstrual blood, and the pain associated with the menstrual cycle.
  • They reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and some benign breast tumors, as well as ovarian cysts.
  • They reduce the incidence of severe pelvic inflammation and anemia.




Table 2: Mini/monophasic-hormone pills
Disadvantages / Side effects Advantages
  • The common mistake of using it is forgetting to take the pills at the same time every day.
  • You need constant replenishment.
  • They usually cause menstrual irregularities or amenorrhea.
  • Less common side effects may include gastrointestinal disturbances and bloating, feeling sick, headache, breast tenderness, mood, and psychological changes, and weight gain.
  • They don’t protect against sexually transmitted diseases
  • They cannot be used by women who have undiagnosed metrorrhagia or newly diagnosed arterial and heart diseases.


  • Nursing mothers can take it without affecting the quantity or quality of milk
  • They don’t conflict and don’t need any action when sexual intercourse
  • Once you stop using them, your fertility returns to its previous level
  • A light menstrual cycle is almost painless and the pain associated with ovulation is relieved
  • They have other health benefits:
  • They reduce the risk of endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, and some benign breast tumors
  • They are used to treat endometriosis
  • They reduce the incidence of severe pelvic inflammatory and anemia


Hormonal methods/implants



They are special capsules like matchsticks that are implanted under the skin in the inner part of the upper arm that secrete the hormone progesterone slowly. It can be used for a period of 3 to 5 years, depending on the type of implant, and its effectiveness is up to 99.5%.


(The advantages and disadvantages with the side effects are the same as the mono-hormonal pills, except that they do not need to be taken daily)


Hormonal methods - injections / needles


The majority of these injections contain only progesterone (Depo-Provera injections) are injected into the muscle approximately every three months and can be found in the form of a compound that is injected into the muscle once a month. The effectiveness rate is high, up to 99.7%.


(The advantages and disadvantages with the side effects are the same as the mono-hormonal pills, except that they do not need to be taken daily)


Chemical means

They are spermicides that are available in several forms, including creams, gels, sprays, as well as vaginal suppositories, where the woman places the chosen method inside the vagina before intercourse to kill the sperm or make it unable to move towards the egg and thus fertilize it. The effectiveness is limited to 70%, so it is not recommended to use it alone and it is preferable to use it with other methods of contraception to increase effectiveness.

The disadvantages: They must be placed at a certain time and may cause sensitivity and irritation to the skin in some couples

Topical means

Intrauterine devices (IUDs)

The most widely used method in Jordan. It is a small, flexible plastic piece in the shape of the letter T that is placed inside the uterus. It is available in two types, hormonal and copper (copper-wire-coated intrauterine device). It affects the process of fertilization, specifically the vitality and movement of the sperm, paralyzing their movement and stopping the fertilization of the egg, making the lining of the uterus less suitable for implantation of a fertilized egg, with a high effective rate of 99.8%.


Disadvantages Advantages
  • Its use requires a doctor's review and a thorough medical examination
  • Inserting and removing the IUD may be painful
  • Some women may feel pain during their period
  • The period or amount of menstruation may increase with some women
  • Appearance of blood spots outside the menstrual period
  • Secretions in the vagina
  • Intermittent bleeding
  • Sometimes blood appears after intercourse
  • It may lead to an ectopic pregnancy
  • It may cause pain in the lower abdomen and back
  • Infections of the reproductive system may occur
  • It does not protect against sexually transmitted diseases


  • Very High Efficiency
  • It does not interfere with the sexual process
  • Protection against pregnancy for ten years
  • The ability to have children returns after the IUD is removed
  • Suitable for all ages of childbearing age



 Male condom


It is a thin sleeve made of latex that is used by the husband at the time of intercourse. It protects against sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV, by seizing sperm and microbes so that they do not reach the vagina. Effectiveness is up to 97%.


For a condom to be effective, it must be made of latex, with a valid shelf life, electronically checked, kept in a moderately hot place away from sunlight or any source of heat, or in places exposed to friction, for example, pants pocket or wallet.


 Table 4: Advantages and disadvantages of condoms





  • A new condom must be used at every intercourse or position during sexual intercourse
  • Latex may cause itching in some users who are allergic to this substance
  • It may reduce sexual sensation and pleasure, but some types do not affect this
  • Some people may be shy to buy it
  • It needs to have certain characteristics and be kept in a dry and cool place to be effective
  • Its effectiveness depends on following the correct method of use




  • Protects spouses from infection with some sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / AIDS infection
  • It can be used immediately after birth
  • Provides temporary protection against pregnancy
  • Its use does not require a medical examination
  • High Efficiency
  • Available from several sources
  • Cheap price
  • Helps those with premature ejaculation
  • Usually there are no side effects
  • It doesn’t have health effects
  • The man shares the responsibility for family planning





Topical methods: Female condom, cervical cap, and vaginal diaphragm


The female condom is a thin, transparent, soft plastic membrane that is placed inside the vagina before intercourse to cover the cervix and prevent sperm from entering the uterus and reaching the egg for fertilization. It is placed in a way that requires specific training. One of its benefits is that it protects against sexually transmitted diseases and HIV / AIDS infection.



Emergency Means

It is a means of emergency contraception and to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse through the use of pills containing progestin hormone only in high concentration or combination pills, or the use of copper IUDs. These methods inhibit or delay ovulation, obstruct egg transfer and stop the fertilization process. It reduces the chance of pregnancy by between 75% and 90%, and its effectiveness increases when the time between intercourse and the use of the method is shorter. 


Disadvantages / side effects Advantages


  • They have side effects that include: nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, fatigue, breast pain, and irregular vaginal bleeding or spotting (usually these effects do not last more than 24 hours after taking the dose)
  • The time available for its use is limited after intercourse (within 72 hours for pills and five days for copper IUDs).
  • They don’t protect against sexually transmitted diseases
  • Not effective if there is a confirmed pregnancy.
  • They can be taken on any day of the menstrual cycle.
  • They are used by women who do not want to become pregnant and do not have contraindications for use in the event of:
  • Having intercourse without using any method of contraception.
  • If the method fails (perforation of the condom and leakage of semen)
  • Wrong use of contraception (missing one or more pills)
  • Forced intercourse or rape



Permanent means
  • Vasectomy (vas deferens) for men: The sperm ducts that carry sperm from the testicles are blocked or cut. This is through a surgical procedure.

  • Tubal ligation/ligation of the tubes in women This process depends on cutting the channel connecting the ovary and the uterus to prevent the sperm from reaching the egg while maintaining the occurrence and regularity of the menstrual cycle, as ovulation occurs on time every month, so the woman will not feel any change.