Reproductive health knowledge platform for youth

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The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in a man's reproductive system. Its function is to produce and store semen with a fluid rich in nutrients for sperm. It is located under the bladder and in front of the rectum and surrounds the upper part of the urethra, which is the tube that empties urine from the bladder.

Studies have shown that several risk factors may play a role in prostate cancer, including:

  • Age: The older a person gets, the higher the risk of prostate cancer.
  • Genetics/family history/ethnicity: The risk that the person is infected increases if a family member (father or brother) has prostate cancer. Americans of the black race are also affected more than whites. But the environment and the way of life can change that.
  • Smoking and diet: A high-fat diet and obesity may increase the risk of prostate cancer. Studies have shown that fat increases the production of testosterone, which stimulates the growth of cancerous cells in the prostate.
  • High levels of testosterone: It is more likely that men with high levels of testosterone or those who use testosterone as treatment may develop prostate cancer than men with low testosterone levels. Prolonged treatment with testosterone causes an enlarged prostate.

What are the symptoms of prostate cancer?

  • Urine hesitancy
  • Urinary retention
  • Urinary urgency but little urination
  • There is blood in the urine
  • Pain in the lower abdomen and lower back
  • Pain extends to the legs and may cause hemiplegia in advanced cases
  • Albumin and fluid retention
  • Painful ejaculation
  • The disease may initially spread locally to the surrounding organs such as seminal vesicles, bladder, and urethra, then lymphatic spread, and then spread through the blood, affecting the bones, especially the sacrum, pelvis, vertebrae, skull, ribs, femur, and spine.