Health care for pregnant women
The food should be complete, and balanced and include all nutrients such as protein, carbohydrates, fats, minerals, and vitamins.
· Integrated food: The daily integrated food should contain at least three meals for each of the following three basic groups:
Energy and effort foods
carbohydrates and fats (which provide the body with the energy required for activity and movement.
· Building foods
They are sources of proteins that help build and restore body tissues.
ü Animal sources: such as meat, birds, fish, dairy, and their products
ü Vegetable sources: such as legumes of all kinds
Focus should be placed on milk and its products.
· Prevention foods
They are sources of vitamins and minerals such as fresh vegetables and fruits of all kinds.
Pregnant women are advised to increase proteins, minerals, and vitamins, and to reduce carbohydrates and fats such as cream, ghee, and oil.
The pregnant is advised to reduce eating some types of fish (such as tuna) because they contain mercury that is harmful to the fetus and uncooked foods.
· Sport of pregnant woman
Light housework is considered an important exercise, as well as walking outside the house, which helps to relax the abdominal and pelvic muscles and facilitate the birth process, but some sports should be avoided during pregnancy, especially playing tennis, horse riding, and other stressful sports. Excessive rest should be avoided (except in some special cases) for fear of varicose veins and venous thrombosis.
· Sleep and rest
It is recommended to sleep (8 hours) a day, including one hour after lunch, and to sleep on one side. It is usually advised on the left side and avoiding lying on the back because it has harmful effects on the mother and fetus.
· Personal hygiene
General hygiene is necessary during pregnancy as it is before pregnancy and more. Bathing should take place in a warm place, not in a very hot place. The temperature of the water should not exceed the body temperature (37), and the bath should not last for more than twenty minutes. The sauna should be avoided.
Washing inside the vagina is warned without a prescription because it weakens the natural defenses in the vagina in terms of mucus, acidity, and milk germs that are beneficial to the body.
· Dental care
Because of the high possibility of tooth decay during pregnancy, oral and dental hygiene should be taken care of, and periodic dental examinations must be performed during pregnancy. Pregnancy does not prevent any dental work such as extraction and filling with or without anesthesia after consulting doctors.
Those who intend to become pregnant must visit the dentist before pregnancy to ensure the safety of their teeth.
· Care of the digestive system and intestines
Constipation is a common health problem during pregnancy and can be avoided by eating plenty of fiber-rich foods, vegetables, fruits, juice, drinking large amounts of fluids (6-8 glasses of water), avoiding strong laxatives and enemas, getting used to going to the toilet at regular times, and reducing coffee and tea because they help to increase constipation.
The pregnant must wear loose cotton clothes so as not to impede the growth of organs and impede the movement of the pregnant woman. It is necessary to emphasize the avoidance of girdles, tight laces, and high-heeled shoes.
The pregnant should refrain from smoking and not be in smoking areas.
The effect of smoking during pregnancy: A woman who smokes is at risk of miscarriage or the birth of a small fetus. Smoking also causes problems in the placenta and the placenta may cause placental abruption from the uterus, causing bleeding that puts the life of the mother and fetus at risk.
· Breast care
The nipples and areolas must be kept clean by washing them with warm water. Pregnant women are advised to perform soft massages after each bath and during the last three months of pregnancy, as these exercises contribute to increasing the visibility of the nipples and areolas if they are not prominent.
It is advised to avoid marital relations when there are previous miscarriages in the first months of pregnancy, and intercourse is prohibited in the event of vaginal bleeding or low-lying placenta, or premature rupture of membranes and the amniotic fluid breaks early.
Noting that sexual intercourse may cause preterm birth.
It is not recommended to take any medication, no matter how simple, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy without a prescription and after consulting a specialist.
· Prevention of sepsis
Pregnant women are advised to stay away from infected places and people who are suspected of having some infectious diseases, including skin diseases that affect children. Pregnant women are also advised to stay away from animals, especially cats, as they may be infected with toxoplasmosis.
· Surgical operations
Pregnancy does not prevent emergency surgeries, provided that the pregnancy is not exposed to hypoxia or hypotension during the anesthesia period, and the best period is the second trimester of pregnancy.
· Pregnant travel
The matter of travel varies, according to the time of pregnancy on the one hand, and according to the travel means on the other. It is advised not to travel in the ninth month to avoid preterm birth during travel.
· Exposure to the sun and fresh air
Exposure to sunlight is very important during pregnancy for a certain period to obtain vitamin D, in addition to staying away from sources of environmental pollution.
· Vaccinations to be taken by mother
ü Rubella vaccination
The rubella vaccine consists of live attenuated viruses. It is given to girls at the age of 10-12 years, i.e., before puberty. If the girl is not vaccinated, then she must be vaccinated during marriage and three months before pregnancy, because infection with this virus leads to fetal malformation.
ü Tetanus vaccine
A pregnant woman who has not been vaccinated or who has been vaccinated for more than ten years must take the tetanus vaccine (the adult dose is half the child's dose).