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High-risk pregnancies

High-risk pregnancies

 

They are the pregnancies that, during their progression, pose a danger to the mother or the fetus, or both, at a higher rate than the general risk during a normal pregnancy. About (75-80%) of the percentage of diseases and deaths are perinatal. Early identification of these patients followed by appropriate treatment and measures may greatly modify the risk to the fetus or mother or both.

Diseases or factors that make pregnancy dangerous

 Marital status

·        Age: Less than 18 years old. - Over 35 years old.

·        Weight: Less than 45 kg. - More than 85 kg.

·        Height: less than 145 cm.

·        Multiple births: five or more births.

·        The economic and social environment.

·        Smoking.

Pathological history

·        Arterial pressure diseases.

Main symptoms: severe headache, blurred vision, swollen feet, convulsions.

·        Preeclampsia: It is a syndrome characterized by three signs:

ü An increase in systolic arterial tension of (30 mm H) or more and diastolic blood pressure of (15 mm H) or more than the normal range, or an increase in pressure more than (90/140).

ü Protein in the urine more than (0.3 g / 100 ml/urine 24 hours).

ü Swelling in the face and upper extremities.

·        Diabetes mellitus.

Complications for a diabetic mother:

ü Pregnancy complications: amniotic edema, urinary infections.

ü Diabetic complications: hypoglycemic episode, hyperglycemic episode, diabetic coma.

ü Vascular complications: affect the blood vessels in the heart, kidneys, or retina of the eyes.

ü Neurological complications.

ü Complications (fetal) to the fetus when the mother suffers from high blood sugar (gestational diabetes):

ü  Increased weight of the fetus, as it may weigh more than 4 kg.

ü  Neurological, cardiovascular, and vascular abnormalities.

ü  Fetal death.

ü  Impairment of the fetus's physical organs.

ü  Decreased growth of the fetus inside the womb.

ü  Anemia. Many factors predispose to anemia, including malnutrition, chronic diseases, lack of monitoring of pregnancy.

ü  Sexually transmitted diseases.

ü  Chest diseases (tuberculosis - chronic chest diseases)

ü  Kidney Diseases

ü  Heart disease.

ü  Abnormalities of reproductive ways.

ü  Other chronic diseases: (tumors - mental diseases - epilepsy ... etc.)

Previous deliveries

·        Birth more than 3 times.

·        Stillbirth.

·        A live newborn who died in the first week of life.

·        A previous birth that occurred before 37 weeks of pregnancy (prematurity).

·        Abortion.

·        Caesarean section or other surgeries in the uterus.

·        Difficult labor.

·        Previous infertility.

·        Previous congenital malformation.

·        The different positions of the child during birth.

·        Bleeding during pregnancy and childbirth.

·        Premature birth.

Present pregnancy:

·        Twins: Pregnancy with twins causes an increase in fetal diseases and perinatal deaths in addition to an increase in the maternal mortality rate.

·        Early rupture of the amniotic membrane.

·        Pregnancy longer than 42 weeks.

·        Medicines and x-ray.

·        Hemorrhage.

·        Premature labor.

·        Infections: The increased incidence of preterm labor causes premature rupture of membranes (PROM) puerperal infections, including urinary tract infections and bacterial infections.

·        ABO incompatibility: If the father is positive and the mother is negative, then the child is positive and differs from his mother's blood type.

·        The different positions of the child during birth.

·        Maternal anemia (hemoglobin less than 9%).