Reproductive health knowledge platform for youth

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Breast cancer

Breast cancer

The breast

 an excretory gland consisting of muscles, fibers, and milk ducts.

Breast cancer

a malignant tumor that affects some of the breast cells that proliferate randomly and can spread to other parts of the body.

Breast cancer is one of the most common and most severe types of cancer among women. It is the second cause of death in the Eastern Mediterranean region. In addition, there are more than 2.1 million women diagnosed with breast cancer annually at the global level.

Breast cancer is not limited to women only, although the size of a man's breast is much smaller than a woman's breast, there are still cells that may undergo cancerous changes. Statistically, women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer than men, but the disease may affect any man, especially between the ages of sixty and seventy.

Breast cancer symptoms

An unusual swelling or lump in or near the breast to the area that extends under the armpit.

Change in the size and shape of the breast.

Change in the color or texture of the breast skin.

Wrinkles, redness, or inflammation of the skin.

Change in the shape of the nipple, or inverted nipple.

Pain, itching, or crusting of the nipple.

Unusual nipple discharge (fluid or blood).

It is important not to neglect these symptoms, claiming that they are not painful, and to rush to a doctor immediately to ensure safety and make sure that the tumor is not malignant.

The methods of early detection of breast cancer
The method of diagnosis is the same for breast cancer in women and men, in contrast to the delay in diagnosing men's cases in the past. Despite the similarities, differences in breast size and men's awareness of this type of disease and their impact on early diagnosis and treatment effectiveness should be considered. Knowing the signs and symptoms of breast cancer may help save the patient's life because early detection of the disease makes treatment options more and the possibility of recovery much greater.

Method 1: Breast self-exam

Method 2: Clinical breast exam performed by a doctor.

Method 3: Mammogram.

Method 4: Echography

Method 5: Take a biopsy (a sample) from the tumor for microscopic examination.

Ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer

The risk factors for ovarian cancer

First-degree relatives, such as the mother, sister, and/or daughter, have cancer, not like breast or bowel cancer (genetic disposition).

The presence of endometriosis.


Exposure to asbestos.

Use of replacement hormones (a small increase)

Use of medications to induce ovulation.

The woman has previously had another type of cancer.

Women aged 55 and over.

A woman who has not given birth or given birth after the age of 35.


The symptoms of ovarian cancer

Ovarian cancer symptoms may not be obvious at first, but as it grows, the main symptoms include

Pressure or pain in the abdomen, back, legs, and pelvis.

Abdominal bloating.

Nausea, indigestion, gases, constipation, or diarrhea.

Feeling tired all the time.

Uterine and cervical cancer

Uterine and cervical cancer

Uterus and Cervix

 The uterus is a muscular, conical organ resembling a pear. It is in the pelvic area and is divided into two parts: the upper part called the body of the uterus, and the lower, which is the cervix and opens the cervix at the top of the vagina.

Cervical cancer

The main cause of infection with this cancer is infection with the virus (HPV), which is a sexually transmitted disease.

The methods of early detection of uterine and cervical cancer

Regular Pap smears test

The woman observes her body, notices the following symptoms, and consults a doctor as soon as one of the following symptoms appears:

Abnormal vaginal bleeding/discharge frequently or after intercourse

Pain during or after intercourse

Difficulty or pain when urinating

Pain in the pelvic area

The woman should not neglect any abnormal bleeding that occurs to her, especially after intercourse and after reaching the menopause age.

Prevention of sexually transmitted diseases

Taking a vaccine against this disease protects against the possibility of infection with four types of HVP virus, thus reducing the risk of infection to some extent.

Cervical cancer

After the breast, the uterine body is the most common cancer-affected area of a woman's reproductive system.

Endometrial cancer: It is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus, which is where the fetus grows.

Endometrial cancer occurs most often after menopause. Endometrial cancer is often caught at an early stage. This is because it often results in abnormal vaginal bleeding. If endometrial cancer is caught early, a surgical hysterectomy is often the cure.


Vaginal bleeding after menopause.

Heavy menstrual bleeding (Menorrhagia).

Intermenstrual bleeding.

Pelvic pain.

Unexplained weight loss.

Risk factors

More years of menstruation or later menopause.

You have never been pregnant before. If you've never been pregnant, your risk of developing endometrial cancer is higher than that of a woman who has had at least one pregnancy.

The elderly. As you get older, your risk of developing endometrial cancer increases.


Hormonal therapy for breast cancer.

Hereditary Colon Cancer Syndrome.


High blood pressure.

Consumption of large amounts of fat.

Chronic consumption of estrogen alone.

Having a family history of endometrial cancer.

A previous history of radiotherapy for the pelvic area.