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Advice and management of minor complaints during pregnancy

Advice and management of minor complaints during pregnancy

 

Nausea/vomiting

·        The cause of nausea and vomiting is due to the increased concentration of hormones in the body. The feeling of nausea and vomiting begins to gradually disappear by week 12-13, i.e., the beginning of the fourth month.

Women are advised to:

ü Eat small frequent meals rather than one large meal and stay away from fatty and spicy foods.

ü If the pregnant woman does not improve, and she continues to feel nausea and vomiting, she needs a medical evaluation to ensure that there are no other pathological causes, and she may need to enter the hospital for tests and take the necessary fluids and medicines.

ü Many women feel better if they drink a glass of milk before sleeping or eat a piece of toast bread or sugar before leaving bed in the morning and not suddenly get out of bed.

Feeling tiredness

·        The pregnant feeling of tiredness during the early period of pregnancy is common, and she usually regains her energy during the second trimester of pregnancy (the beginning of the fourth month).

·        If the pregnant continues to feel tired during the second trimester of pregnancy, she needs to assess her health and social status and sleep patterns, and her health status is evaluated by doctors, perform a full clinical examination of the heart, lungs, and rest of the body, and appropriate laboratory tests such as blood strength, thyroid gland, and sugar.

 Frequent urination

·        Frequent urination is a common symptom during pregnancy, resulting from the gradual increase in the size of the uterus and its pressure on the bladder.

·        In case of noticing any other accompanying symptoms such as urinary urgency, lower abdominal pain, and burning during urination, the woman should obtain medical advice and ensure that there is no asymptomatic urinary tract infection.

·        It is necessary to continue to drink an adequate amount of water, approximately 2 liters per day.

 Digestive changes

·        Suffering from some digestive changes, the most important of which is the feeling of acidity (heartburn) is common during pregnancy because of hormonal changes that cause the muscles of the digestive system to relax.

Women are advised to:

ü Avoid eating large meals.

ü Reduce foods that contain hot spices and oils.

ü Drink enough water from 2 - 3 liters, as well as have a glass of lukewarm water in the morning before breakfast.

ü Regular physical activity.

ü Eat foods rich in fiber.

ü Avoid lying down for an hour after eating.

ü If symptoms do not improve or increase in severity, they need medical advice.

Hemorrhoids

·        The occurrence of anal hemorrhoids during pregnancy is common, because of the increase in the size of the uterus and hormonal changes that cause congestion and expansion of the wall of blood vessels in the rectum. Constipation worsens anal hemorrhoids. Symptoms of hemorrhoids include anal itching, anal pain, blood in the stool, and a painful lump on the anus.

Women are advised to:

ü Drink enough water daily.

ü Eat foods rich in fiber.

ü Regular physical activity.

ü Avoid straining during defecation and trying to raise the feet when defecation (lying on a small stool).

ü It is recommended to use the Arab bath, if available.

ü Avoid sitting/standing for long periods.

ü Avoid taking laxatives without consulting the doctor.

ü If symptoms do not improve, medical advice should be sought.

Painful leg cramps

·        The feeling of painful muscle cramps in the leg is common during pregnancy because of calcium and magnesium deficiency.

When a woman experiences muscle cramps, she must do the following:

ü Pointing the toes towards the knee joint until the painful cramps disappear.

ü Using a warm poultice may help relax the muscle.

To avoid these painful cramps, women are advised to:

ü Drinking adequate fluids daily.

ü Avoid soft drinks and processed foods.

ü Eat enough food sources of magnesium such as legumes, nuts, dates, and dried fruits such as figs and apricots.

ü Raising the bottom of the bed about (25 cm) may relieve cramps during the night. It is useful to take a warm bath before sleeping and exercise regularly.

ü If symptoms continue or do not improve, medical advice, and calcium and magnesium supplements should be taken.

Insomnia

·        Insomnia during pregnancy is common, especially during the first weeks of pregnancy and the approaching date of delivery.

Women are advised to:

ü Determine a specific time to go to sleep each day.

ü Reduce drinking fluids and stimulants before going to sleep.

ü Avoid watching any activities on screens 1-2 hours before going to sleep, such as television, electronic games, social media via smartphones, and watching videos.

ü Use a pillow that supports the back and legs.

If all the above are followed and the woman's sleep quality does not improve during the night, she must take periods of naps during the day.

Legs swelling

Women are advised to:

ü Raise the feet frequently.

ü Eat an adequate number of fluids and reduce salt.

ü Lie on both sides of the body (preferably the left side) to promote the return of venous blood to the heart. And to check the albumin in the urine and measure the pressure of the mother.

If swelling on one side of the leg is noticed, the woman needs to get medical advice as soon as possible to make sure that there is no clotting or blood clotting.

If the leg swelling is accompanied by stomach pain, headache, and blurred vision, the woman needs to get medical advice as soon as possible to prevent the presence of high pressure harmful to the mother and fetus.

legs varicose

·        The leg varicose is common during the last months of pregnancy due to the pressure of the fetus on the pelvis.

Women are advised to do the following to improve blood circulation:

ü Practice sports activities such as swimming and walking.

ü Avoid sitting/standing for long periods.

ü Avoid cross-legged legs when sitting.

ü Raise the feet frequently during the day.

ü Using leg supports (support stockings) and making sure to wear them immediately upon waking up from sleep and before leaving the bed.

The mother may need to take fluids after medical advice.

 Anemia

·        Iron deficiency anemia is an important problem and is the most common nutritional problem in the world. Women of childbearing age, especially pregnant women, are seriously affected (and it may be accompanied by folic acid deficiency, especially in the second half of pregnancy due to the increased need of the body for iron because of pregnancy.

·        Laboratory tests are the defining factor when investigating anemia, as general symptoms (such as pallor, fatigue, dyspnea, and loss of appetite) may not be specific to anemia.

Prevention of iron deficiency anemia in pregnant women

ü Giving pregnant women a protective dose of iron (120 mg iron and 500 mg folic acid) after the third month of pregnancy.

ü Correct nutrition during pregnancy, especially meat, fish, and poultry, with an emphasis on substances that stimulate iron absorption, especially ascorbic acid (vitamin C), and avoiding factors that inhibit iron absorption, especially phenolic compounds in the pulp and shells of grains and polyphenols found in nuts and legumes, including gallnut compounds found in tea and coffee.

Heartburn

·        The progesterone hormone relaxes the muscles of the esophageal sphincter, and thus gastroesophageal regurgitation occurs. This feeling most often appears around the 30-40th week of pregnancy because the stomach is under the influence of the pressure of the enlarged uterus.

Women are advised to:

ü Eat small, frequent, and portioned meals.

ü Avoid eating fatty and spicy foods.

ü Not to delay dinner, i.e., not to eat the meal before going to bed.

ü Using more than one pillow to raise her head while lying down or taking an elevated position.

ü It is necessary to take the necessary medical advice.

Vaginal itching

·        The cause of this is not known during pregnancy, although it may be seen during fungal infections.

·        The presence of sugar in the urine or lack of hygiene may be the cause. It is preferable to repeat the urine test to avoid the presence of sugar in the urine.

Vaginal discharges

·        This term refers to the excessive number of vaginal discharges that are white, not irritated, and do not have a bad odor, that occurs during pregnancy, and the cause of increased blood supply that increases cervix secretions.

·        Pregnant women are advised to wear non-tight cotton underwear. It is preferable to wash the outside with lukewarm water twice a day, and it is preferable not to use powder. Infections related to the vagina, such as trichomonas vaginalis or fungi, should be excluded, noting that secretions that have color, contain blood, or have a bad odor are pathological.

Backache

·        Minor backache may be due to exertion, fatigue, excessive bending, walking, or a hunched-back position that the pregnant woman takes at the end of pregnancy due to the growth of the uterus and fetus and the change in the center of gravity in the pregnant woman. Hormones may cause some relaxation in the ligament to the extent that they may need some support.

Women are advised to:

ü Correct posture and wear low shoes.

ü Sleep on a flat mattress and in the fetal position.

ü Sitting on a chair in a taut position, with the chair having armrests.

ü It is useful to perform a massage or a back massage, as well as to perform physical exercises, especially exercises that help strengthen the back muscles.

ü Bend the knee in case of lifting things. (Using the thigh muscles, which are the strongest muscles, by bending the blazing knee to bear the weight instead of the weaker back muscles).

ü Use of pregnancy corset.

 

 Skin minor itching

·        It may occur due to the stretching of the skin during pregnancy. If itching occurs in the trunk and extremities, you need a medical consultation because it may accompany fetal morbidity and need certain tests, and treatments, and may need early delivery.

Pregnant visit dates

The World Health Organization advises pregnant women to visit any health facility to monitor pregnancy at least 4 times during pregnancy if the pregnancy is normal. The specialist decides the number of visits to high-risk pregnancies.

 

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